Niclosamide, marketed under the trade name Niclocide, is a drug used to treat tapeworm infestations. Included in this category are diphyllobothriasis, hymenolepiasis, and taeniasis. It is ineffective against other types of worms, including hookworms and roundworms. It is administered orally.
Among the adverse effects include nausea, vomiting, stomach discomfort, and itching.
It may be taken throughout pregnancy and looks to be safe for the unborn child.
Niclosamide belongs to the anthelmintic class of drugs. It acts by preventing the worm from consuming sugar.
- In 1958, niclosamide was discovered.
- It is on the list of essential medicines maintained by the World Health Organization.
- It’s not accessible commercially in the United States.
- It is effective on a variety of other species.
Includes nausea, vomiting, stomach discomfort, constipation, and itching as side effects.
Rarely, patients may experience vertigo, skin rash, sleepiness, perianal irritation, and an unpleasant taste. Praziquantel is a superior and equally effective therapy for tapeworm infection for a number of these reasons. (Reference required) Important Note: Niclosamide kills and results in the digesting of the pig tapeworm. The subsequent discharge of a large number of viable eggs may result in cysticercosis. Consequently, a purge should be administered 1 or 2 hours following therapy. CNS cysticercosis is a potentially fatal disorder that may need brain surgery.
Effectivity of action
The tapeworm’s glucose absorption, oxidative phosphorylation, and anaerobic metabolism are inhibited by niclosamide.
Due to the fact that niclosamide’s metabolic effects are applicable to a broad variety of species, it has been used to control creatures other than tapeworms. It is an active element in formulations such as Bayluscide for killing lamprey larvae, as a molluscicide, and as a general-purpose piscicide in aquaculture. Niclosamide has a short half-life in water under field settings, which makes it useful for removing undesired fish from commercial fish ponds; it loses its activity quickly enough to allow restocking within a few days after eliminating the previous population. Researchers have discovered that niclosamide effectively eliminates invasive zebra mussels in chilly waters.
Niclosamide is being investigated for a variety of cancer types.
In a 2015 research, niclosamide and oxyclozanide, another anti-tapeworm medication, were shown to have “significant in vivo and in vitro action against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)”.
Multiple investigations have shown that Niclosamide has the capacity to combat numerous viral infections, at least in laboratory settings. It has been shown, for instance, that it inhibits the reproduction of the Hepatitis E virus. The Danish biotechnology firm UNION initiated a clinical trial utilizing niclosamide to treat COVID-19 on July 1, 2020.
Another research indicated the efficacy of a combination of Niclosamide and ivermectin against SARS-CoV-2 activity, demonstrating a synergistic profile, indicating that this combination should be evaluated in further clinical studies.
Another investigation on the use of niclosam as a therapy for COVID-19 showed its efficacy against viral multiplication and the accompanying cytopathic.
In 2018, it was shown that niclosamide is an effective activator of PTEN-induced kinase 1 in primary cortical neurons.
As PINK1 malfunction is related to a kind of Parkinson’s disease, this characteristic makes niclosamide and derivative chemicals desirable as research tools and prospective therapeutic options for the disorder.